Manuel Pinho was Portugal's Minister of Economy and Innovation and was elected a member of parliament from 2005 to 2009 as an independent. During that period, Portugal became one of the leading nations in the world in renewable energies and electric mobility. Mr. Pinho is the author of "Europe's New Energy Era," a roadmap that inspired the Strategic European Plan for Energy approved by the European Council of Ministers in 2008. He was formerly with the staff of the IMF, Director General of the Treasury and had a career in banking. He is currently Program Director for the Energy MBA at the Institute of Labor Science and Business in Lisbon, Portugal and a visiting professor at Columbia University. Mr. Pinho holds a doctoral degree in Economics from the University of Paris-X.