Ambassador Grossman served as the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, the State Department's third ranking official, until his retirement in 2005 after 29 years in the U.S. Foreign Service. As Under Secretary, he helped marshal diplomatic support for the international response to the attacks of September 11, 2001. He also managed U.S. policies in the Balkans and Colombia and promoted a key expansion of the NATO alliance. As Assistant Secretary for European Affairs, he helped direct NATO's military campaign in Kosovo and an earlier round of NATO expansion. In Turkey, Ambassador Grossman encouraged the growth of Turkish democracy and vibrant U.S.-Turkish economic relations. Ambassador Grossman was a Vice Chairman of The Cohen Group from July 2005 to February 2011. In February, 2011 President Obama and Secretary of State Clinton called Ambassador Grossman back to service as the U.S. Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan. Ambassador Grossman promoted the international effort to support Afghanistan by shaping major international meetings in Istanbul, Bonn, Chicago and Tokyo. He provided U.S. backing for an Afghan peace process designed to end thirty years of conflict and played an important part in restoring U.S. ties with Pakistan. He returned to the Cohen Group in January 2013. In January, 2013 Ambassador Grossman was appointed a Kissinger Senior Fellow at the Jackson Institute at Yale University. He is the Chairman of the Board of the Senior Living Foundation of the Foreign Service and a board member of the German Marshall Fund of the United States.