Curriculum Builder

Each semester, the Jackson Institute provides its M.A. students with a “matrix” of courses, compiled from the offerings of the most relevant Graduate School departments and Professional Schools on campus. Students are not limited to building their program of study from this matrix; the list simply serves to bring certain courses to our students’ attention.

The matrix is a guide. Students must consult with the Director of Student Affairs throughout the program, course schedules must be approved by the DGS each term, and a student’s overall program of study must adhere to policies and procedures outlined by the Graduate School and the program. Please note that some courses may have limited enrollment or required prerequisites.

In addition to these courses, students within the M.A. program can take courses from throughout Yale’s Graduate and Professional Schools.

Students pursuing a Joint Degree will select courses for each degree separately, and should consult with the course schedules for their additional degree program to determine what is required throughout matriculation.

Access to ALL of Yale's Schools and Courses:
African Studies, Council on
    AFST 501 Research Methods in African Studies AFST 501 Disciplinary and interdisciplinary research methodologies in African studies. The focus of the course is on field methods and archival research in the social sciences and humanities. Topics include use of African studies and disciplinary sources (including bibliographical databases and African studies archives), research design, interviewing, survey methods, analysis of sources, and the development of databases and research collections.
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    AFST 590 African Studies Colloquium AFST 590  
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    AFST 639 Africa, Politics, Anthropology AFST 639 A historical-anthropological study of politics in Africa. How have anthropologists made sense of the workings of African politics, both those of state and nonstate actors? This course charts how African states came into being, how they operate, and how state agents and the people they govern negotiate legitimacy, authority, and belonging.
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    AFST 839 Environmental History of Africa AFST 839 An examination of the interaction between people and their environment in Africa and the ways in which this interaction has affected or shaped the course of African history.
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Anthropology, Department of
    ANTH 575 Hubs, Mobilities, and Global Cities ANTH 575 Analysis of urban life in historical and contemporary societies. Topics include capitalist and postmodern transformations, class, gender, ethnicity, migration, and global landscapes of power and citizenship.
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    ANTH 581 Society and Environment: Introduction to Theory and Method ANTH 581 An introductory graduate core course on the scope of social scientific contributions to environmental and natural resource issues. Section I presents an overview of the field and course. Section II deals with the way that environmental problems are initially framed. Case studies focus on placing problems in their wider political context, new approaches to uncertainty and failure, and the importance of how the analytical boundaries to resource systems are drawn. Section III focuses on questions of method, including the dynamics of working within development projects, and the art of rapid appraisal and short-term consultancies. Section IV is concerned with local peoples and the environment, with case studies addressing myths of tropical forest use and abuse development discourse, and with the question of indigenous peoples and knowledge.
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    ANTH 639 Africa, Politics, Anthropology ANTH 639 A historical-anthropological study of politics in Africa. How have anthropologists made sense of the workings of African politics, both those of state and nonstate actors? This course charts how African states came into being, how they operate, and how state agents and the people they govern negotiate legitimacy, authority, and belonging.
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    ANTH 641 Oral Presentation Skills in Biological Anthropology ANTH 641 This seminar is designed to give graduate students training and experience in delivering effective oral presentations in various academic and nonacademic settings. In addition to focusing on the content, structure, and delivery of oral presentations, we highlight certain aspects of public speaking, including body language, volume, intonation, and gestures, to help improve overall presentation skills. We practice short, conference-like talks, job talks, and lectures. The seminar includes attending talks and/or lectures on campus to learn the dos and don'ts of public oral presentations, as well as plenty of time for individual practice. The schedule of meetings is determined based on the need and schedule of everyone in the class.
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    ANTH 515 Culture, History, Power, and Representation ANTH 515 This seminar is a critical introduction to anthropological formulations of the junctures of meaning, interest, and power. Readings include classical and contemporary ethnographies that are theoretically informed and historically situated.
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    ANTH 541 Agrarian Societies: Culture, Society, History, and Development ANTH 541 An interdisciplinary examination of agrarian societies, contemporary and historical, Western and non-Western. Major analytical perspectives from anthropology, economics, history, political science, and environmental studies are used to develop a meaning-centered and historically grounded account of the transformations of rural society. Team-taught.
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    ANTH 560 Representing Iran ANTH 560 This course introduces students to major themes in Iranian history and culture and builds a critical framework for understanding some of the challenges that face modern Iran today. In reading modern fiction, ethnography, historical narratives, primary sources, and theoretical texts covering local and oral history, revolutions, Islam and secularism, democracy and theocracy, and the role of cinema, students examine the Western production of knowledge about Iran and rethink what we know about such categories as history, culture, and gender.
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    ANTH 571 Modern Indonesia ANTH 571 Political and cultural dynamics in contemporary Indonesia explored from historical and anthropological perspectives. Major ethnic groups, key historical dynamics, political culture, and interaction between modernization and traditional lifeways. Issues of ethnicity, gender, religion, and economy in situations of rapid social change.
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Divinity, School of
    REL 651 Digital Media, Liturgy, and Theology REL 651 This course—the first at YDS to focus on digital cultures—enquires into ecclesial practices that have migrated online and are digitally mediated, especially those of prayer and worship. In recent years, both very old and entirely new liturgical practices have flourished in digital social space, from the live streaming of worship services to digital prayer chapels, virtual choirs, online pilgrimages, and digitally mediated devotions such as daily prayer via tweets or "pray-as-you-go" apps. Some communities have experimented with so-called cyber-baptisms and cyber-communions. And cyberspace hosts communities of faith that exist only online, for example, in Web-based interactive virtual reality environments. This course brings the tools and insights of new media theories, liturgical studies, and constructive theology to the enquiry into these ecclesial practices. Area II.
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    REL 711 Reign & Popular Culture Latin Amer REL 711 Areas DI (3), DI (5), DI DIV
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    REL 914 Christian-Muslim Encounter: Historical and Theological Dimensions REL 914 This course is an introduction to Islamic theology through the framework of the Five Pillars, with special emphasis on the development of religious structures and institutions in the early centuries. In time the pillars of religion grew independently of Islam's political culture. Civil society offered a stable environment for religious life amidst political changes. This situation has similarities with New World ideas about society rather than the state as the proper locus of religion. Area V.
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Economics, Department of
    ECON 630 Labor Economics ECON 630 Topics include static and dynamic approaches to demand, human capital and wage determination, wage income inequality, unemployment and minimum wages, matching and job turnover, immigration and international trade, unions, implicit contract theory, and efficiency wage hypothesis.
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    ECON 680 Public Finance I ECON 680 Major topics in public finance including externalities, public goods, benefit/cost analysis, fiscal federalism, social insurance, retirement savings, poverty and inequality, taxation, and others. Applications are provided to crime, education, environment and energy, health and health insurance, housing, and other markets and domains. The course covers a variety of applied methods including sufficient statistics, randomized control trials, hedonic models, regression discontinuity, discrete choice, spatial equilibrium, dynamic growth models, differences-in-differences, integrated assessment models, applied general equilibrium, event studies, firm production functions, learning models, general method of moments, and propensity-score reweighting estimators.
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    ECON 720 International Trade I ECON 720 This course covers the theory of international trade, policy, and institutions. Discussion of Classical, Neo-classical, and more recent imperfect-Competition-Scale-Economies-based static models of trade. The course presents dynamic extensions of some of the models that explore the relations among trade, innovation, and growth. The analytics of trade policy issues, such as gains from trade, tariffs and quotas, customs unions and free trade areas, and the political economy of trade policy making, are discussed.
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    ECON 730 Economic Development I ECON 730 Development theory at both aggregate and sectoral levels; analysis of growth, employment, poverty, and distribution of income in both closed and open developing economy contexts.
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    ECON 788 Political Competition ECON 788 Political competition in democracies is party competition. We develop, from the formal viewpoint, theories of party competition in democracies. The familiar "median voter theorem" of A. Downs is the simplest example of such a theory, but it is inadequate in several ways. We develop a theory in which parties (1) compete over several issues, not just one issue, as in Downs; (2) are uncertain about how citizens will respond to platforms; and (3) represent interest groups in the population. Applications, particularly to the theory of income distribution and taxation, are studied.
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    ECON 545 Microeconomics ECON 545 A survey of the main features of current economic analysis and of the application of the theory to a number of important economic questions, covering microeconomics and demand theory, the theory of the firm, and market structures. For IDE students.
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    ECON 558 Econometrics ECON 558 Application of statistical analysis to economic data. Basic probability theory, linear regression, specification and estimation of economic models, time series analysis, and forecasting. The computer is used. For IDE students.
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    ECON 562 Designing the Digital Economy ECON 562 Information technology is transforming how almost every market works: finance has been transformed by algorithmic trading and bitcoin, ridesharing is changing the nature of public transportation, Amazon is revolutionizing logistics, and Airbnb is now the most valuable accommodation provider in the world. This transformation, which has been led by start-ups and newly dominant technology companies, inherently combines technical and economic aspects, as entrepreneurs take advantage of the potential of technology to facilitate exchanges that were previously infeasible. This crash course in the key tools from economics and computer science that are being used to design digital markets exposes students to a range of concrete and topical practical problems in the area.
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    ECON 580 General Economic History: Western Europe ECON 580 A survey of some major events and issues in the economic development of Western Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, stressing the causes, nature, and consequences of the industrial revolution in Britain and on the Continent, and the implications of the historical record for modern conceptions of economic growth.
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Forestry, School of
    F&ES 878 Climate and Society F&ES 878 3 credits. Seminar on the major traditions of thought, historic and contemporary, regarding climate, climate change, and society, drawing on the social sciences and anthropology in particular. Section I, introduction. Section II, continuities from past to present: How have differences in climate been used since the classical era to explain differences in people? How does this vary between Western and non-Western intellectual traditions? What role has the ethnographic study of folk knowledge played in this? Section III, societal and environmental change: What shape did environmental determinism take in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries? Can historic cases of societal "collapse" be attributed to extreme climatic events? Can such events play a constructive as well as destructive role in the development of a society? Section IV, vulnerability and control: What are the means by which societies attempt to cope with extreme climatic events? How do such events reflect, reveal, and reproduce socioeconomic fault lines? Section V, knowledge and its circulation: How is knowledge of climate and its extremes constituted? How does such knowledge become an object of contestation between central and local authorities, as well as between the global North and South? The main texts, The Anthropology of Climate Change (Dove, ed., 2014, Wiley-Blackwell) and Climate Cultures (Barnes and Dove 2015, Yale) were written especially for this course. No prerequisites. Graduate students may enroll with the instructor's permission. Two-hour lecture/seminar. Taught in alternate years.
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    F&ES 892 Introduction to Planning and Development F&ES 892 3 credits. This course demonstrates the ways in which financial and political feasibility determine the design of buildings and the character of the built environment. Students propose projects and then adjust them to the conflicting interests of the financial institutions, real estate developers, civic organizations, community groups, public officials, and the widest variety of participants in the planning process. Subjects covered include housing, commercial development, zoning, historic preservation, parks and public open space, suburban subdivisions, planned communities, and comprehensive plans.
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    F&ES 953 Business and the Environment Consulting Clinic F&ES 953 3 credits. In this class, students work as a team on a specific project for an external organization. It provides students with an opportunity to apply their knowledge of business and environmental issues to real-life situations. It also provides a unique opportunity for students to manage a real-life client consulting engagement. Examples of projects include (1) developing a sustainability reporting strategy for a company; (2) assessing water risk in a company's supply chain; and (3) recommending operational improvements around energy usage, waste disposal, etc. The intent is to provide a "capstone" experience, calling for the application of skills and tools learned from previous classes. Class sessions consist of a mix of in-class lectures, team meetings with the instructor, and guest lecturers. Lectures address topics such as project management and business strategy. Guest speakers discuss various environmental and sustainability topics such as sustainability reporting, developing a corporate environmental strategy, and environmental certifications and labeling. Enrollment limited to twenty.
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    F&ES 961 Entrepreneurial Venture Creation F&ES 961 3 credits. Entrepreneurship is all about starting and running your own business. Before starting a business, entrepreneurs must research the viability of their business and develop a strategy for executing the business. While the steps for doing this are often the same, regardless of the business, the specific issues and areas for investigation usually depend on the type of business and the industry it is in. This course offers students the opportunity for personalized coaching and feedback on their individual business concept. The course is for up to four teams of three to four students each, who want to pursue their own new start-up venture. Ventures must have the potential to be eligible for F&ES's annual Sobotka Seed Stage Venture Grants and the Sabin Prize. This means they should have the potential to grow big by solving a large problem in a unique and feasible way. The scope of the work includes: (1) doing in-depth market, product, and competitor research; (2) creating a strategy for a viable business; (3) developing a financial model; (4) writing a professional-quality executive summary; (5) developing an "investor pitch" presentation. Meeting dates to be determined.
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    F&ES 966 The Entrepreneurial Approach to Environmental Problem Solving F&ES 966 3 credits. This course provides a format for students ready to develop entrepreneurial plans for specific environmental businesses. There are two aspects to any business: knowing the technical subject, and understanding the business environment. It is assumed that students have a background in both aspects, and this course is to enable the students to work in groups to "flesh out" a business. The course has regular meetings, but much of the work—and reporting—is done by the students, with advice and input from the faculty and others at Yale and in the business world. The course (and its prerequisite) may be used in conjunction with competing for the Sabin Prize.
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    F&ES 970 Environmental Protection Clinic F&ES 970 3 credits. A clinical seminar in which students are engaged with actual environmental law and policy problems on behalf of client organizations (environmental groups, government agencies, international bodies, etc.). The class meets weekly, and students work ten to twelve hours per week in interdisciplinary groups (with students from the Law School and other departments or schools at Yale) on projects with a specific legal or policy product (e.g., draft legislation or regulations, hearing testimony, analytic studies, policy proposals, white papers, memos, etc.). Students may propose projects and client organizations, subject to approval by the instructor. Enrollment limited to thirty. This course follows the Yale Law School academic calendar.
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    F&ES 972 Advanced Environmental Protection Clinic F&ES 972 1–6 credits. Open only to students who have successfully completed the Environmental Protection Clinic (F&ES 970a,b). Permission of the instructor required. Enrollment limited to twenty. This course follows the Yale Law School academic calendar.
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    F&ES 805 Seminar on Environmental and Natural Resource Economics F&ES 805 1.5 credits. This seminar is based on outside speakers and internal student/faculty presentations oriented toward original research in the field of environmental and natural resource economics and policy.
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    F&ES 807 Corporate Environmental Management and Strategy F&ES 807 3 credits. This survey course focuses on understanding how adroit environmental management and strategy can enhance business opportunities; reduce risk, including resource dependency; promote cooperation; and decrease environmental impact. The course combines lectures, case studies, and class discussions and debates on management theory and tools, legal and regulatory frameworks shaping the business-environment interface, and the evolving requirements for business success (including how to deal with diverse stakeholders, manage in a world of transparency, and address rising expectations related to corporate responsibility).
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    F&ES 818 Energy Access Dvlping Countries F&ES 818  
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    F&ES 822 Strategic Communication F&ES 822  
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    F&ES 822 Strategic Communication F&ES 822  
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    F&ES 826 Foundations of Natural Resource Policy and Management F&ES 826 3 credits. This course offers an explicit interdisciplinary (integrative) framework that is genuinely effective in practical problem solving. This unique skill set overcomes the routine ways of thinking and solving conservation problems common to many NGOs and government organizations by explicitly developing more rigorous and effective critical-thinking, observation, and management skills. It is genuinely interdisciplinary. By simultaneously addressing rational, political, and practical aspects of real-world problem solving, the course helps students gain skills, understand, and offer solutions to the policy problems of managing natural resources. The approach we use requires several things of students (or any problem solvers): that they be contextual in terms of social and decision-making processes; that they use multiple methods and epistemologies from any field that helps in understanding problems; that they strive to be both procedurally and substantively rational in their work; and, finally, that they be clear about their own standpoint relative to the problems at hand. The approach used in this course draws on the oldest and most comprehensive part of the modern policy analytic movement—the policy sciences (interdisciplinary method)—which is growing in its applications worldwide today. The course includes a mix of critical thinking, philosophical issues, history, as well as issues that students bring in. Among the topics covered are human rights, scientific management, decision making, community-based approaches, governance, common interest, sustainability, professionalism, and allied thought and literature. In their course work students apply the basic concepts and tools to a problem of their choice, circulating drafts of their papers to other seminar participants and lecturing on and leading discussions of their topics in class sessions. Papers of sufficient quality may be collected in a volume for publication. Active participation, reading, discussion, lectures, guests, and projects make up the course. The seminar supports and complements other courses in the School and at the University. Enrollment limited to sixteen; application required.
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    F&ES 836 Agrarian Societies: Culture, Society, History, and Development F&ES 836 3 credits. An interdisciplinary examination of agrarian societies, contemporary and historical, Western and non-Western. Major analytical perspectives from anthropology, economics, history, political science, and environmental studies are used to develop a meaning-centered and historically grounded account of the transformation of rural society. Four hours lecture plus discussion sections.
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    F&ES 839 Social Science of Conservation and Development F&ES 839 3 credits. This course is designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the social aspects involved in implementing conservation and sustainable development and conservation. Social science makes two contributions to the practice of conservation and development. First, it provides ways of thinking about, researching, and working with social groupings—including rural households and communities, but also development and conservation institutions, states, and NGOs. This aspect includes relations between groups at all these levels, and especially the role of politics and power in these relations. Second, social science tackles the analysis of the knowledge systems that implicitly shape conservation and development policy and impinge on practice. In other words, we analyze communities but also our own ideas of what communities are. The emphasis throughout is on how these things shape the practice of sustainable development and conservation. Case studies used in the course have been balanced as much as possible between Southeast Asia, South Asia, Africa, and Latin America; most are rural and Third World. The course includes readings from all noneconomic social sciences. The goal of the course is to stimulate students to apply informed and critical thinking (which means not criticizing others, but questioning our own underlying assumptions) to whatever roles they may come to play in sustainable development and conservation, in order to move toward more environmentally and socially sustainable projects and policies. The course is also designed to help students shape future research by learning to ask questions that build on, but are unanswered by, the social science theory of conservation and development.
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    F&ES 851 Environmental Diplomacy [Moved to spring term] F&ES 851  
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    F&ES 753 Regression Modeling of Ecological and Environmental Data F&ES 753 3 credits. This course in applied statistics assists scientific researchers in the analysis and interpretation of observational and field data. After considering the notion of a random variable, the statistical properties of linear transformations and linear combinations of random data are established. This serves as a foundation for the major topics of the course, which explore the estimation and fitting of linear and nonlinear regression models to observed data. Three hours lecture. Statistical computing with R, weekly problem exercises.
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    F&ES 754 Geospatial Software Design F&ES 754 3 credits. This course introduces computer programming tools and techniques for the development and customization of geospatial data-processing capabilities. It relies heavily on use of the Python programming language in conjunction with ESRI's ArcGIS, Google's Earth Engine, and the open-source Quantum geographic information systems (GIS). Three hours lecture, problem sets.
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    F&ES 756 Modeling Geographic Objects F&ES 756 3 credits. This course offers a broad and practical introduction to the nature and use of drawing-based (vector) geographic information systems (GIS) for the preparation, interpretation, and presentation of digital cartographic data. In contrast to F&ES 755b, the course is oriented more toward discrete objects in geographical space (e.g., water bodies, land parcels, or structures) than the qualities of that space itself (e.g., proximity, density, or interspersion). Three hours lecture, problem sets. No previous experience is required.
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    F&ES 772 Social Justice in the Sustainable Food System F&ES 772 3 credits. This course explores social justice dimensions of today's globalized food system and considers sustainability in terms of social, in addition to environmental, indicators. We develop an understanding of the food system that includes farmers and agroecological systems; farm and industry workers; business owners and policy makers; as well as all who consume food. Based on this understanding, we examine how phenomena such as racism, gender discrimination, structural violence, and neoliberalization surface within the food system in the United States and globally, drawing examples from such diverse sectors as agriculture, labor, public health, and international policy. We discuss conceptual frameworks—such as food justice and food sovereignty—that farmers, activists, critical food scholars, humanitarian agencies, and policy makers are using to create food systems that are both sustainable and just. We also investigate how current ideological debates about the intersections of food, agriculture, and social justice shape policy making and advocacy at multiple scales. Throughout the term we explore our own position(s) as university-based stakeholders in the food system. The course includes guest speakers, and students are encouraged to integrate aspects of their own scholarly and/or activist projects into one or more course assignments.
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Global Affairs, Jackson Institute for
    GLBL 618 The Next China GLBL 618 Born out of necessity in the post-Cultural Revolution chaos of the late 1970s, modern China is about reforms, opening up, and transition. The Next China will be driven by the transition from an export- and investment-led development model to a pro-consumption model. China's new model could unmask a dual identity crisis—underscored by China's need to embrace political reform and the West's long-standing misperceptions about China.
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    GLBL 695 Multilateral Institutions in the 21st Century GLBL 695 The multilateral system developed after the Second World War has served as the foundation for peace and prosperity for 70 years. Today???s threats are, however, no longer limited to cross-border conflicts between states but increasingly involve actions by non-state actors, conflict s within states and global issues. This course examines the relevance of these institutions to meeting these challenges and explores the relations among existing and emerging powers and regional groupings.
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    GLBL 713 Middle East Politics GLBL 713 Exploration of the international politics of the Middle East through a framework of analysis that is partly historical and partly thematic. How the international system, as well as social structures and political economy, shape state behavior. Consideration of Arab nationalism; Islamism; the impact of oil; Cold War politics; conflicts; liberalization; the Arab-spring, and the rise of the Islamic State.
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    GLBL 792 Ethical Choices in Public Leadership GLBL 792 Every public leader must make choices that challenge his/her code of ethics. Sometimes, a chance of life or death is literally at stake. How and when should a leader decide to let some people die or explicitly ask people to die to give others a chance to live? Other times, while life or death may not be at stake, still a leader must decide difficult issues: when to partner with unsavory characters, when to admit failure, when to release information or make choices transparent. This interdisciplinary seminar on Ethical Choices in Public Leadership will draw upon perspectives from law, management, and public policy in exploring how leaders develop their principles, respond when their principles fail or conflict, and make real-world choices when, in fact, there are no good choices. Permission of the instructor required. Attendance of first session is mandatory. Class dates are Sept 1 (5-7pm), Sept 15 (6-8pm), Sept 16 (8:30am-12:30pm), Oct 27 (5-8pm), Oct 28 (8:30am-12:30pm), Nov 3 (5-8pm), Nov 4 (8:30am-12:30pm), Dec 1 (5-8pm), Dec 2 (8:30am-12:30pm), Dec 15 (5-8pm).
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    GLBL 799 Independent Project GLBL 799 By arrangement with Jackson Institute Senior Fellows.
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    GLBL 801 Economics: Principles and Applications GLBL 801 This course deals with the application of basic microeconomic analysis to public policy issues. The principal goal is to teach students the process of economic reasoning and how to apply that reasoning to policy issues in the real world. The course covers the basic topics in microeconomic theory: consumer theory, production theory, market models from competition to monopoly, theories of labor and capital markets, and models of externalities and other common market failures. Some calculus will be used without apology along with a great deal of algebra and graphical analysis.
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    GLBL 802 Applied Methods of Analysis GLBL 802 The course focuses on useful analytical approaches in public policy and the social sciences. The first part of the course focuses on mathematical skills. The second part focuses on methods for analyzing empirical data and builds on the mathematical skills from the first part of the course. Special focus is devoted to developing the skills necessary to synthesize and evaluate empirical evidence from the social sciences. Students leave the class with an applied understanding of how quantitative methods are used as tools for analysis in public affairs.
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    GLBL 803 History of the Present GLBL 803 The first half of the course presents some of the major diplomatic (and sometimes military) confrontations of the twentieth century, beginning with the First Balkan War, including the breakdowns of the late 1930s and progressing through the end of the Cold War. The second half introduces the history of Ukraine and closes with a case study of the Russian invasion of Ukraine's south and east as the end of the post-cold war order. In both parts emphasis is placed upon a close reading of primary documents and upon the reconstruction of possible alternatives.
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    GLBL 803 History of the Present GLBL 803 The first half of the course presents some of the major diplomatic (and sometimes military) confrontations of the twentieth century, beginning with the First Balkan War, including the breakdowns of the late 1930s and progressing through the end of the Cold War. The second half introduces the history of Ukraine and closes with a case study of the Russian invasion of Ukraine's south and east as the end of the post-cold war order. In both parts emphasis is placed upon a close reading of primary documents and upon the reconstruction of possible alternatives.
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    GLBL 910 Genocide in History and Theory GLBL 910 Comparative research and analysis of genocidal occurrences around the world from ancient times to the present; theories and case studies; an interregional, interdisciplinary perspective. Readings and discussion, guest speakers, research paper.
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    GLBL 999 Directed Reading GLBL 999 By arrangement with faculty.
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    GLBL 529 Sexuality, Gender, Health, and Human Rights GLBL 529 This course explores the application of human rights perspectives and practices to issues in regard to sexuality and health. Through reading, interactive discussion, paper presentation, and occasional outside speakers, students learn the tools and implications of applying rights and law to a range of sexuality and health-related topics. The overall goal is twofold: to engage students in the world of global sexual health and rights policy making as a field of social justice and public health action; and to introduce them to conceptual tools that can inform advocacy and policy formation and evaluation. Class participation, short reaction papers, and a final paper required.
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    GLBL 530 Human Trafficking in the Global Context GLBL 530 Human trafficking has been described as the largest human rights violation in the history of mankind. It is the third-largest criminal activity in the world (after drug smuggling and arms dealing). The estimated twenty-seven million enslaved individuals represent the highest number of slaves in human history. This course applies both a historical and contemporary context on slavery and anti-slavery and quantitative analysis to study the challenges confronting law enforcement and diplomatic agencies around the world. Questions students address include: How effective are the current methods for tracking and prosecuting human trafficking? What laws and/or policy changes could be enacted to eradicate human trafficking? How is the problem understood in different ways throughout the world? What is the role of the Internet and dark web in human trafficking? How can data inform anti-human trafficking efforts, and what is the limit of data? What should the role of the United States be in combatting human trafficking? What are other countries doing to confront the issue, and do they understand the problem in similar terms? Guest speakers from global NGOs, the Department of Homeland Security, survivors of human trafficking, policy makers, and anti-slavery activists.
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    GLBL 554 Violence: State and Society GLBL 554 The course examines violence that occurs mainly within the territory of sovereign states. We focus on violence as an object of study in its own right. For the most part, we look at violence as a dependent variable, though in some instances it functioned as an independent variable, a mechanism, or an equilibrium. We ask why violence happens, how it "works" or fails to work, why it takes place in some locations and not others, why violence takes specific forms (e.g., insurgency, terrorism, mass killing), what explains its magnitude (the number of victims), and what explains targeting (the type or identity of victims). Special attention to connecting theoretical literatures in the social sciences with policy-relevant debates in government and nongovernmental service.
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    GLBL 556 State and Society in Contemporary Ukraine GLBL 556 Functioning of the state and society in post-Soviet Ukraine. The formation and subsequent transformation of the state, including the constitution, the branches of government, the party system, elections, foreign policy, education, and social welfare. Various facets of society such as religion, media, language use, gender relations, poverty, and racism are considered. Particular attention paid to the Orange Revolution and Euromaidan.
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    GLBL 559 Evolution of Central Banking GLBL 559 Changes in the contours of policy making by central banks since the turn of the twentieth century. Theoretical and policy perspectives as well as empirical debates in central banking. The recurrence of financial crises in market economies. Monetary policies that led to economic stability in the period prior to the collapse of 2007-2008. Changes in Monetary Policies since the Great Financial Crisis.
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    GLBL 567 Global Aspects of Food and Nutrition GLBL 567 The course presents a core topic in global health and development that is at the intersection of science, society, and policy. The course familiarizes students with leading approaches to analyzing the causes of malnutrition in countries around the world and to designing and evaluating nutrition interventions. It covers micronutrient and macronutrient deficiencies; approaches to reducing malnutrition; the cultural, economic, environmental, agricultural, and policy context within which malnutrition exists; and the relationships between common infections and nutritional status.
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    GLBL 569 Water, Sanitation, and Global Health GLBL 569 Water is essential for life, and yet unsafe water poses threats to human health globally, from the poorest to the wealthiest countries. More than two billion people around the world lack access to clean, safe drinking water, hygiene, and sanitation (WASH). This course focuses on the role of water in human health from a public health perspective. The course provides a broad overview of the important relationships between water quality, human health, and the global burden of waterborne diseases. It discusses the basics of water compartments and the health effects from exposures to pathogenic microbes and toxic chemicals in drinking water. It also covers different sanitation solutions to improve water quality and disease prevention and discusses future challenges and the need for intervention strategies in the new millennium.
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    GLBL 571 Sustainable Development Goals and Implementation GLBL 571 This course has students (working alone or in a small group) design a specific implementation plan for a specific country for a specific item that is part of the Sustainable Development Goals to be adopted by the U.N. in September 2015. Students study the new post-2015 sustainable development goals and their implementation in the real world. The course focuses primarily on understanding and developing the ability to effectively apply a variety of tools and means of implementation, relying primarily on guest lecturers. The aim is for each student or group of students to combine a geographic area/region (for example, a country of key interest), a sustainable development goal, and a tool for implementation to design an effective implementation strategy to present to those at the ministerial and decision-making level.
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    GLBL 572 Understanding and Building Resilience in Developing Countries GLBL 572 Resilience in the last decade has moved from a peripheral ecological idea to a central concept in major world debates e.g. Sustainable Development Goals, Climate change Adaptation, Resilient infrastructure and ecosystems. What makes a person or a community resilient to the impacts of climate change? How has the resilience approach been operationalized in the fields of sustainability, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation? What are the limitations and critiques of resilience thinking, and how might this concept evolve in the future? As development and government agencies increasingly adopt the resilience approach, students interested in pursuing careers across a range of business, environmental and development sectors will increasingly find themselves faced with these questions. This course will prepare students to understand the theory of resilience and operationalize it in a given context.
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History, Department of
    HIST 687 Russia, the USSR, and the World, 1855–1945 HIST 687 Political and economic relations of Russia/Soviet Union with Europe, the United States, and Asia from tsarism to socialism.
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    HIST 744 Readings and Research in Energy History HIST 744 The history of energy in the United States and the world. Readings and discussion range widely across different forms of energy: animal power, biomass, and early hydropower; coal, oil, and atomic energy; and present-day hydraulic fracturing, wind, and solar. Themes include relations between energy producers and communities, including resistance to energy projects; cultural and social change associated with dominant energy regimes; labor struggles and environmental transformations; the global quest for oil; and changing national energy policies. We explore new approaches to writing and teaching the history of energy.
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    HIST 775 Readings in the History of Sexuality HIST 775 Selected topics in the history of sexuality. Emphasis on key theoretical works and recent historical literature.
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    HIST 807 Resistance, Rebellion, and Survival Strategies in Modern Latin America HIST 807 An interdisciplinary examination of new conceptual and methodological approaches to such phenomena as peasants in revolution, millenarianism, "banditry," refugee movements, and transnational migration.
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    HIST 810 Introduction to Brazilian History HIST 810 An introduction to the historical problems and historiography of Brazil. Readings of basic books in the field and discussion of the historiographical traditions. Basic readings are in English but students are encouraged to use Portuguese.
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    HIST 839 Environmental History of Africa HIST 839 An examination of the interaction between people and their environment in Africa and the ways in which this interaction has affected or shaped the course of African history.
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    HIST 847 Research, Primary Sources, and Qajar Historiography HIST 847 The Orient and knowledge of the Other; from travel literature to Oriental studies to Middle East history; beyond academic: art, literature, and cinema; politics of Orientalism and Occidentalism. No language prerequisite.
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    HIST 860 From Medina to Constantinople: The Middle East from 600 to 1517 HIST 860 The seminar discusses the religious and political events that shaped the Middle East from the rise of Islam to the Ottoman conquest of Egypt. It encompasses Arab lands, Iran, and Turkey.
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    HIST 887 Research in Japanese History [Cancelled] HIST 887 This seminar on Japan's early modern and modern history has three parts. We first read a number of outstanding books and articles to inform and inspire our own research agenda. We then familiarize ourselves with the different types of sources and reference materials. The final six weeks of the course are devoted to individual research projects, which we hone through several cycles of presentations, drafts, and peer review. While the course is designed for graduate students with a reading knowledge of Japanese, it welcomes participants who want to pursue a Japan-centered project with sources in other languages.
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    HIST 965 Agrarian Societies: Culture, Society, History, and Development HIST 965 An interdisciplinary examination of agrarian societies, contemporary and historical, Western and non-Western. Major analytical perspectives from anthropology, economics, history, political science, and environmental studies are used to develop a meaning-centered and historically grounded account of the transformations of rural society. Team-taught.
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    HIST 980 Genocide in History and Theory HIST 980 Comparative research and analysis of genocidal occurrences around the world from ancient times to the present; theories and case studies; an interregional, interdisciplinary perspective. Readings and discussion, guest speakers, research paper.
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    HIST 985 Studies in Grand Strategies, Part II HIST 985 Part II of the two-term linked seminar offered during the calendar year 2016. Research seminar.
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Law, School of
    LAW 20568 Sexuality, Gender, Health, and Human Rights LAW 20568 Sexuality, Gender, Health, and Human Rights (20568). 2 units. This course will explore the application of human rights perspectives and practices to issues in regard to sexuality, gender, and health. Through reading, interactive discussion, paper presentation, and occasional outside speakers, students will learn the tools and implications of applying rights and law to a range of sexuality and health-related topics. The overall goal is twofold: to engage students in the world of global sexual health and rights policy making as a field of social justice and public health action; and to introduce them to conceptual tools that can inform advocacy and policy formation and evaluation. Class participation, a book review, an OpEd, and a final paper required. This course will follow the calendar of the Graduate School. Enrollment limited. Permission of the instructor required.Also GLBL 529a/CDE 585a. A.M. Miller.
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    LAW 30165 Advanced Environmental Protection Clinic LAW 30165 Advanced Environmental Protection Clinic (30165). 1 to 4 units. Open only to students who have successfully completed the Environmental Protection Clinic. Students who complete this section for two or more units may satisfy the Professional Responsibility or Legal Skills requirement. Permission of the instructors required. Enrollment limited to twenty. J. Galperin, D. Hawkins, and L. Suatoni.
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    LAW 20040 Public Order of the World Community LAW 20040 Public Order of the World Community: A Contemporary International Law (20040). 4 units. This introduction to contemporary international law will study the role of authority in the decision-making processes of the world community, at the constitutive level where international law is made and applied and where the indispensable institutions for making decisions are established and maintained, as well as in the various sectors of the public order that is established. Consideration will be given to formal as well as operational prescriptions and practice with regard to the participants in this system (states, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, political parties, pressure groups, multinational enterprises, other private associations, private armies and gangs, and individuals); the formal and informal arenas of interaction; the allocation of control over and regulation of the resources of the planet; the protection of people and the regulation of nationality; and the allocation among states of jurisdiction to make and apply law. In contrast to more traditional approaches, which try to ignore the role of power in this system, that role will be candidly acknowledged, and the problems and opportunities it presents will be explored. Special attention will be given to (1) theory; (2) the establishment, transformation, and termination of actors; (3) control of access to and regulation of resources, including environmental prescriptions; (4) nationality and human rights, and (5) the regulation of armed conflict. Enrollment will be capped at thirty. Scheduled examination or paper option. W.M. Reisman.
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    LAW 30171 Advanced International Refugee Assistance Project LAW 30171 Advanced International Refugee Assistance Project (30171). 2 or 3 units. A fieldwork-only option. Prerequisite: Global Refugee Legal Assistance. Permission of the instructors required. R. Heller and L. Finkbeiner. Course Bidding: Continuing students should list this course as the lowest bid among experiential course selections.
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    LAW 20672 Refugee and immigration Law, Policy and Practice in Crisis LAW 20672 Refugee and Immigration Law, Policy and Practice in Crisis (20672). 1 unit. In recent months, competing responses from European countries towards the influx of Syrian refugees have deepened the crisis confronting the European Union, birthplace of the Geneva Convention. The moral standing of the United States is also at stake at its southern border, where Central American mothers and children seeking refuge have been met with policies and practices of family detention and have raised important questions regarding the definition of a refugee. In roughly the same moment, in the Dominican Republic, the Supreme Court has denaturalized tens of thousands of citizens of Haitian origin, forcing them into statelessness and exile. All are examples of the rising crisis of the international legal regime, which, since the Second World War, has tried to secure citizenship, guarantee an international status of refugee, and regulate immigration. With the input and insight of guests speakers, this workshop will examine the European and American responses to the Syrian refugee crisis, American law and policy with respect to the influx of Central American refugees, and the resumption of denationalization through the case of the Dominican Republic. Through these and other examples, we will envisage proposals for reform of the international citizenship, refugee and immigration regime. This one-credit, graded course will meet seven times over the course of semester for two-hour sessions. Grading will be based upon class participation and a series of short written assignments to be completed throughout the semester. Substantial Paper or Supervised Analytic Writing credit may also be available. Prior knowledge of immigration or refugee law is helpful but not required. Paper required. Enrollment limited. M.I. Ahmad and P. Weil.
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    LAW 30174 Advanced Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic LAW 30174 Advanced Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic (30174). 3 or 4 units. Open only to students who have completed the Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic. Permission of the instructor required. J.J. Silk, H.R. Metcalf, and A. Bjerregaard. Course Bidding: Continuing students should list this course as the lowest bid among experiential course selections. In addition to listing this clinic among experiential course selections, students wishing to enroll in the advanced clinic must submit (1) a brief statement (less than 250 words) of the goals they would like to achieve in the Clinic during the semester and (2) a list of all significant commitments, including extracurricular activities, externships, work, and other clinics, during the semester. These materials should be submitted through the bidding system by 4:30 p.m. on June 23. Note: Students may not drop the Advanced Lowenstein Clinic after the first day of the semester.
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    LAW 20297 Regulation of Energy Extraction LAW 20297 Regulation of Energy Extraction (20297). 2 or 3 units. This comparative risk course will explore the troubled intersection between energy and environmental policies. We will consider a diverse range of regulatory approaches to minimize adverse environmental effects of various forms of energy development. These include emerging issues regarding hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) in the United States and European Union; regulation of off-shore drilling and lessons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill; liability for natural resources and other damages from oil spills under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA90); the Fukushima, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear accidents; applicability of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to oil and coal leases on federal lands; the Endangered Species Act; visual pollution and other issues relating to windfarms; coal mine disasters; mountaintop mining and the Mine Safety Act; and tailings piles and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). The class will conclude by considering how concerns about climate change may affect the future of energy development. No prerequisites. Supervised Analytic Writing or Substantial Paper credit available. Enrollment capped at thirty. Self-scheduled examination or paper option. E.D. Elliott. Note: No more than three absences are permitted.
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    LAW 20343 Brexit and the Law LAW 20343 Brexit and the Law (20343). 1 unit, credit/fail. The momentous June 2016 referendum calling for Great Britain’s withdrawal from the European Union has created extraordinary uncertainty. While the shock to the global economy was felt immediately, the broader political and legal ramifications of “Brexit” will likely be worked out over the next several years. This supervised reading group is designed to give the Yale Law School community a focal point for thoughtful discussion of these issues: a one-credit supervised reading and discussion group with expert invited guests that will meet during the first part of the Fall 2016 semester. Speakers will not present formal papers, but rather, share best thoughts on such “Brexit And” topics as: human rights, foreign policy, free trade, security, European Union law, international law and organizations, and the future of Scotland and Ireland. Students will receive 1 ungraded credit for attending and doing the assigned reading (to be posted on the course website), which may become graded credit if the student also writes a short paper (5-7 pages) on the “Brexit And…” topic of their choice. H.H. Koh.
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    LAW 20538 Democracy and Distribution LAW 20538 Democracy and Distribution (20538). 2 units.The attention showered in 2015 on Thomas Piketty’s book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, brought issues of inequality in the distribution of income and wealth to the forefront of public and scholarly attention. An enormous body of research has been produced over the past two decades to understand the nature of the dramatic rise in inequality, especially in the United States, and its causes. A long list of proposals for legal change has emerged in response to the outpouring of data and analysis. This course will explore the facts and the causes of and political barriers to potential responses to these recent developments, principally but not exclusively in the United States. Ultimately, the question requires an examination of the relations between democracy and the distribution of income and wealth. Particular attention will be paid to the ways in which different groups, classes, and coalitions affect, and are affected by, democratic distributive politics. Attention will be paid to theories of distribution, politics of distribution, distributive instruments, and the implementation of policies affecting distribution. Substantive topics covered will include, for example, regulation, protectionism, taxes, social insurance, welfare, public opinion, education, and unions. This course will meet according to the Law School calendar. Supervised Analytic Writing or Substantial Paper credit possible, with permission of the instructor. Paper required. Enrollment limited to fifteen law students. Also PLSC XXXa. M.J. Graetz and I. Shapiro.
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    LAW 30164 Environmental Protection Clinic: Policy and Advocacy LAW 30164 Environmental Protection Clinic (30164). 3 units, credit/fail. A clinical seminar in which students will be engaged with actual environmental law or policy problems on behalf of client organizations (environmental groups, government agencies, international bodies, etc.). The class will meet weekly, and students will work ten to twelve hours per week in interdisciplinary groups (with students from the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies and other departments or schools at Yale) on projects with a specific legal or policy product (e.g., draft legislation or regulations, hearing testimony, analytic studies, policy proposals). Students may propose projects and client organizations, subject to approval by the instructor. Enrollment limited. Also F&ES 970b. J. Galperin, D. Hawkins, and L. Suatoni. Course Bidding: Brief statement of interest (fewer than 500 words) and CV required. Students should contact Professor Galperin for a list of available projects and a description of the application process in order to complete all necessary steps, in addition to listing this course among experiential course selections, before June 23 at 4:30 p.m. Note: First-day attendance is required. Students may not drop the clinic after they have been assigned to a client.
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    LAW 20676 Foreign Relations LAW 20676 Foreign Relations (20676). 3 units. This course is an introduction to the constitutional and statutory doctrines that regulate U.S. foreign relations. Topics will include the distribution of foreign relations powers among the three branches of government, the powers to declare war and conduct military operations, the role of U.S. courts in cases touching on foreign relations, the scope of the treaty power, and legal issues related to the war on terror. Scheduled examination. G.N. Sitaraman. Note: There is no enrollment limit on this class, but if enrollment is small enough, a paper option will be made available.
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    LAW 20515 The Global Financial Crisis LAW 20515 [The] Global Financial Crisis (20515). 1.5 units. This course surveys the causes, events, policy responses, and aftermath of the recent global financial crisis. The main goal is to provide a comprehensive view of this major economic event within a framework that explains the dynamics of financial crises in a modern economy. The instructors aim to maximize the value of in-class time. To this end, students will be expected to watch the course lectures in advance on the Coursera platform, with class time reserved for discussions, cases, group presentations, and a crisis simulation. Quizzes, class participation, case presentation, crisis simulation and memo, and final paper required. A. Metrick.
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    LAW 20039 The Past, Present, and Future of Global Climate Change LAW 20039 The Past, Present, and Future of Global Climate Change: Law and Policy (20039). 2 or 3 units. This course will cover the international law and policy of global climate change, with a particular focus on the rules, institutions, and procedures of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its protocols. The course will consider how the climate regime evolved over time and current debate regarding its future. The overall aim is to give students a broad understanding of the basic design features of the compliance regime, the fundamental policy choices/decisions that structure it, and key issues involved in its implementation both now and in the decades to come. Grades will be based on class participation and a paper (to be negotiated with the instructors). Non-law students (graduate and undergraduate) may be admitted by permission of the instructors. Paper required. Enrollment limited to forty. Permission of the instructors required. H.H. Koh, D. Kysar, and T. Stern.
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    LAW 20134 Human Rights Workshop: Current Issues and Events LAW 20134 Human Rights Workshop: Current Issues and Events (20134). 1 unit. Conducted in workshop format and led by Professor Paul Kahn, Director of the Orville H. Schell, Jr. Center for International Human Rights, the course will examine contemporary issues in human rights practice and theory. Guest speakers, including scholars, advocates and journalists, will present each week on a diverse range of topics in human rights. Readings are generally distributed in advance of each session. Students enrolled in the workshop for one unit of ungraded credit will prepare short response papers before several of the sessions and be responsible for asking the speaker a question at each of those sessions. The workshop will meet bi-weekly. P.W. Kahn and J.J. Silk.
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    LAW 20559 International Human Rights LAW 20559 International Human Rights (20559). 2 units. This course will provide an introduction to international human rights law: it will examine its basic grammar, doctrines, and institutional processes. However, this field is witnessing the emergence of a "jus commune" in which both national and international jurisdictions and quasi-judicial instances influence each other. Therefore, comparative human rights law shall also form an important component of the course: we will aim to identify the emerging consensus across human rights bodies on a variety of questions that concern both civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights. The course will be divided into three parts. Part I is an introduction to the sources of the international law of human rights and to some problems of interpretation that arise as a result of the "self-contained" character of the human rights regime. Part II describes the substantive obligations of States under international human rights law. Part III is about institutions or "mechanisms of protection." Scheduled examination. O. De Schutter.
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    LAW 20677 International Humantiarian Law LAW 20677 International Humanitarian Law (20677). 1 unit, credit/fail. This course will center around an intensive two-day workshop on a Friday and Saturday on September 30 and October 1 on international humanitarian law, led by the International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC), together with Professor Oona Hathaway. The workshop will offer a crash course in international humanitarian law, led by leading experts from the ICRC. The course is intended to offer students an opportunity to learn the basics of the law of armed conflict. Students are expected to attend the workshop, one pre-workshop class meeting, and one post-workshop meeting. In addition to attending all course meetings and reading assigned course materials, students will be expected to write one 1200-1500 word paper. Paper required. O. Hathaway.
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    LAW 20355 The Internet and U.S. National Security LAW 20355 [The] Internet and U.S. National Security (20355). 2 units. This seminar will examine national security issues related to the Internet and digital communications, broadly conceived. The focus will be on the tensions between (1) U.S. operations (military, intelligence, economic), interests, security (including economic security), and regulation, as they relate to the Internet, and (2) foreign and global operations, interests, security, and regulation, as they relate to the Internet. Topics will include the impact of the Snowden revelations, international law related to electronic surveillance, national law enforcement and the cloud, the territoriality of data, MLATs, the global element of the encryption debate, offensive cyber operations and international law, private regulation of global internet issues (by, e.g., ICANN, IETF, and IT firms), and global financial regulation of Internet transmissions. The reading will be on the heavy side. Students will write eight 2-3 page reaction papers on the weeks of their choosing and, for an optional extra unit, a paper on a topic related to the seminar. Prerequisite: a course or seminar in national security law or international law or cybersecurity; or experience in a topic related to the class. Enrollment limited to twenty. Permission of the instructor required. J. Goldsmith.
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    LAW 20396 International Investment Law LAW 20396 International Investment Law (20396). 2 units. As foreign direct investment has increased as a function of globalization, so have disputes about it. This seminar will examine the treaties (and their negotiation) concluded to encourage and regulate foreign investment, the international law and procedure applied in the third-party resolution of international investment disputes, and the critical policy issues that must now be addressed. Papers may qualify for Substantial Paper or Supervised Analytic Writing credit. Enrollment will be capped at twenty-five. Scheduled examination or paper option. W.M. Reisman and G. Aguilar-Alvarez.
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    LAW 20484 Islam and Democracy in the Modern Middle East LAW 20484 Islam and Democracy in the Modern Middle East (20484). 2 units. This seminar will study the development of regimes of government in Muslim countries since the nineteenth century. Focus will be on early constitutional movements, the rise of political Islam, the management of religion in various twentieth century states, the Iranian revolution, and the growth of Salafi ideas, culminating in the ISIS "caliphate." This course will meet according to the Yale College calendar. Paper required. Permission of the instructor required. Also PLSC 776a. A.F. March.
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    LAW 20022 The Law and Technology of Cyber Conflict LAW 20022 [The] Law and Technology of Cyber Conflict (20022). 3 units each term (6 units total). This new cross-disciplinary year-long course on cyber security will be taught jointly by faculty from the Law School and Computer Sciences Department. The course is motivated by the conviction that the field of cyber security in general and the emerging subfield of cyber conflict are plagued by the failure of experts to talk across disciplinary divides: Lawyers do not know what technologies are available to address cyber threats and so are often oblivious to technical problems and solutions. Cyber security technologists are often indifferent to the social or political context in which cyber attacks take place and ignorant of the legal regimes that apply. As a result, they often focus solely on technical solutions and fail to leverage the power of law to make bad actors cease and desist. As a matter of international law, “countermeasures” can be undertaken when there is both “necessity” and “proportionality,” but, from a technological perspective, what do these legal terms mean? Progress on cyber security policy is hampered when technologists do not fully grasp the problems that lawyers and regulators are trying to solve and when lawyers and regulators do not understand the possibilities and limitations of technological responses. The first semester of this year-long course will be a classroom seminar that will address the fundamental disconnect between the state of the law and the state of technology by engaging in a joint exercise of learning and teaching. Students and faculty will participate in a crash course on the relevant technology. The course assumes no prior technological or legal expertise and is aimed at building common knowledge and creating a community of shared terminology and inquiry. The second semester will be a hands-on practicum in which students will write policy papers, develop the computational theory of cyber conflict, and/or design and prototype novel technology. These projects will be designed to address some of the critical research gaps that have hindered long-term development of effective policy and technological responses to cyber conflict, including issues such as cyber deterrence in operations short of war, corporate cyber espionage, cyber vandalism/ terrorism, international cyber regulation, and related free speech and privacy concerns. Specific project topics will be formulated based on the first semester’s explorations and in consultation with policymakers who work on issues of cyber security. A year-long (two-semester) commitment is required. Paper or project required. Enrollment limited to ten Law students. Permission of instructors required. Also CPSC 510a. O. Hathaway, J. Feigenbaum, and S.J. Shapiro.
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Management, School of
    MGT 832 The Leadership Lab MGT 832 This course is designed for students committed to actively and intentionally engaging in leadership development. The goal is to increase your capacity to lead through the practical, hands-on application of leadership concepts. The course has two parts. In part one, students will learn foundational concepts such as – creating an environment that supports development, using coaching as an action-oriented approach to achieving goals, and exploring effective and innovative ways to overcome barriers to development and change. Part two will focus on building specific leadership skills to further deepen your ability to lead. Topics include communication, conflict competence, leading through change, emotional intelligence, resilience, and managing up. Additionally students will regularly partner with a peer coach to build on in-class learning by determining where, how, and when he or she can practice these concepts outside of class. This course combines lectures, in-class experiences, scenario discussions, reflections, partner exercises, and the practical application of learning beyond the classroom. The experience will be hands on, interactive, and students who are fully engaged will increase his or her capacity to lead while having fun along the way!
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    MGT 887 Negotiations MGT 887 Learn how to create value in negotiations while also ending up with an appropriate share of that value. Students will develop their techniques through weekly in-class negotiation exercises; attendance is thus crucial. Weekly planning documents and a final paper about a real-world negotiation (one that you perform during the course) are required. There are no prerequisites and students who took the optional “Negotiation Extension” in their first year are welcome to enroll, though there may be slight overlap of material.
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    MGT 887 Negotiations MGT 887 Learn how to create value in negotiations while also ending up with an appropriate share of that value. Students will develop their techniques through weekly in-class negotiation exercises; attendance is thus crucial. Weekly planning documents and a final paper about a real-world negotiation (one that you perform during the course) are required. There are no prerequisites and students who took the optional “Negotiation Extension” in their first year are welcome to enroll, though there may be slight overlap of material.
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    MGT 890 Global Financial Crisis MGT 890 This course surveys the causes, events, policy responses, and aftermath of the recent global financial crisis. The main goal is to provide a comprehensive view of this major economic event within a framework that explains the dynamics of financial crises in a modern economy. The course will be blended between lectures (many online), panel discussions with major actors from the crisis, and small group meetings. Course requirements are the preparation of four memos and a final paper with either an extended analysis of a case or a literature review for a specific topic from the syllabus. The course is cross-listed at SOM, Yale Law School, and Jackson, but is open to all Yale students. Students enrolled outside of SOM should consult their registrar for details on receiving credit. The only pre-requisite is successful completion of a course in introductory economics.
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    MGT 527 Strategic Mgt of Nonprofit Orgs MGT 527 The purpose of this course is to study, discuss, and debate many issues of concern to managers of nonprofit organizations. Broadly speaking, these issues involve mission definition, competing internal and external demands, resource scarcity and uncertainty, governance systems, and managing strategic change. While the principal thrust of the course is on nonprofit organizations, there will be opportunities to examine areas where public, for-profit, and nonprofit organizations interact. The course is primarily, although not exclusively, a case-based course.
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    MGT 661 Transnational Corporations & Human Rights MGT 661 pple’s use of child labor; Goldcorp's operations in Guatemala; the complicity of Dow Chemical/Union Carbide in the Bhopal chemical disaster; Shell’s involvement in the executions of activists protesting the company’s environmental and development policies in Nigeria. These are just a few examples of alleged corporate malfeasance that have emerged on the international stage. The purpose of this seminar is to introduce students to the debate concerning the accountability of transnational corporations that are complicit in rights-violating activities. At the international level, there has been a striking new strategy in the protection of human rights: a transition from focusing solely on rights-violations committed by governments to a detailed examination of transnational corporate conduct. Indeed, it has now become trite to say that particular corporations have directly or indirectly participated in violations of human rights. In order to address the fundamental question of whether corporations should in fact be socially responsible, the seminar will begin with an introduction to corporate theory. Students will then explore some of the key issues in the debate. Namely, whether transnational corporations can properly be included under the international law of state responsibility; mechanisms for self-regulation (e.g., voluntary corporate codes of conduct); the utility of the U.S. Alien Tort Statute; the advantages and disadvantages of U.N. initiatives (e.g., the work of the former U.N. Special Representative on Business and Human Rights); and the relevance of domestic corporate and securities law mechanisms (e.g., shareholder proposals and social disclosure). The course will provide a comparative analysis of the U.S. and Canadian experiences, in particular. Significant paper required. Enrollment limited to fifteen (eight YLS students and seven SOM students). Also MGT 661a. A. Dhir. Note: No drops will be approved after the open add/drop period. Attendance at the first class meeting is required. The use of laptop computers (or other similar electronic note-taking devices) is not permitted. The course will follow the Law School calendar.
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    MGT 529 Global Social Entrprneurship:India MGT 529 Launched in 2008 at the Yale School of Management, the Global Social Entrepreneurship (GSE) course links teams of Yale students with social enterprises based in India. GSE is committed to channeling the skills of Yale students to assist Indian organizations to expand their reach and impact on “bottom of the pyramid” communities. Yale students partner with mission-driven social entrepreneurs (SEs) to focus on a specific management challenge that the student/SE teams work together to address during the semester. In five years, GSE has worked with 30 leading and emerging Indian social enterprises engaged in economic development, sustainable energy, women’s empowerment, education, environmental conservation, and affordable housing. The course covers both theoretical and practical issues, including case studies and discussions on social enterprise, developing a theory of change and related social metrics, financing social businesses, the role of civil society in India, framing a consulting engagement, managing team dynamics, etc. The course is taught by Tony Sheldon, Lecturer in Economic Development and Executive Director of SOM’s Program on Social Enterprise.
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    MGT 832 The Leadership Lab MGT 832 This course is designed for students committed to actively and intentionally engaging in leadership development. The goal is to increase your capacity to lead through the practical, hands-on application of leadership concepts. The course has two parts. In part one, students will learn foundational concepts such as – creating an environment that supports development, using coaching as an action-oriented approach to achieving goals, and exploring effective and innovative ways to overcome barriers to development and change. Part two will focus on building specific leadership skills to further deepen your ability to lead. Topics include communication, conflict competence, leading through change, emotional intelligence, resilience, and managing up. Additionally students will regularly partner with a peer coach to build on in-class learning by determining where, how, and when he or she can practice these concepts outside of class. This course combines lectures, in-class experiences, scenario discussions, reflections, partner exercises, and the practical application of learning beyond the classroom. The experience will be hands on, interactive, and students who are fully engaged will increase his or her capacity to lead while having fun along the way!
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    MGT 538 Mastering Influence & Persuasion MGT 538 No matter who you are and what your goals may be, mastering the tools of influence and persuasion will help you achieve greater success and happiness. Combining research from marketing and psychology with applications from business and the social sector, this practice-based course will teach you to connect more authentically, communicate persuasively, employ principles of motivation, and better understand how people make decisions. As you discover and develop your own style of influence, you’ll also learn how to influence behavior by shaping the contexts and environments in which decisions are made. As the semester progresses, we will expand from the intrapersonal to the interpersonal—from influencing the self to influencing consumers and society. The course combines interactive exercises, case discussions, guest speakers, lectures, and real-world practice, to position you for success. Students must attend the first session to remain enrolled.
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    MGT 538 Mastering Influence & Persuasion MGT 538 No matter who you are and what your goals may be, mastering the tools of influence and persuasion will help you achieve greater success and happiness. Combining research from marketing and psychology with applications from business and the social sector, this practice-based course will teach you to connect more authentically, communicate persuasively, employ principles of motivation, and better understand how people make decisions. As you discover and develop your own style of influence, you’ll also learn how to influence behavior by shaping the contexts and environments in which decisions are made. As the semester progresses, we will expand from the intrapersonal to the interpersonal—from influencing the self to influencing consumers and society. The course combines interactive exercises, case discussions, guest speakers, lectures, and real-world practice, to position you for success. Students must attend the first session to remain enrolled.
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    MGT 538 Mastering Influence & Persuasion MGT 538 No matter who you are and what your goals may be, mastering the tools of influence and persuasion will help you achieve greater success and happiness. Combining research from marketing and psychology with applications from business and the social sector, this practice-based course will teach you to connect more authentically, communicate persuasively, employ principles of motivation, and better understand how people make decisions. As you discover and develop your own style of influence, you’ll also learn how to influence behavior by shaping the contexts and environments in which decisions are made. As the semester progresses, we will expand from the intrapersonal to the interpersonal—from influencing the self to influencing consumers and society. The course combines interactive exercises, case discussions, guest speakers, lectures, and real-world practice, to position you for success. Students must attend the first session to remain enrolled.
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    MGT 538 Mastering Influence & Persuasion MGT 538 No matter who you are and what your goals may be, mastering the tools of influence and persuasion will help you achieve greater success and happiness. Combining research from marketing and psychology with applications from business and the social sector, this practice-based course will teach you to connect more authentically, communicate persuasively, employ principles of motivation, and better understand how people make decisions. As you discover and develop your own style of influence, you’ll also learn how to influence behavior by shaping the contexts and environments in which decisions are made. As the semester progresses, we will expand from the intrapersonal to the interpersonal—from influencing the self to influencing consumers and society. The course combines interactive exercises, case discussions, guest speakers, lectures, and real-world practice, to position you for success. Students must attend the first session to remain enrolled.
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    MGT 553 Strategic Communication MGT 553 Class attendance is mandatory, including the first day. Those who miss the first day of class will be dropped from enrollment. There are four sections to choose from - two sections offered in fall-2 and two sections offered in spring-1. They are all the same half semester course, just offered at different times in the semester. The focus of this course is to increase one's competencies in oral communication and presentation. Developing and executing effective communication strategies is essential in a variety of business settings. Business leaders are often expected to present their message with confidence and clarity to employees, clients, partners, investors and the public. This highly interactive, practical course will help students develop confidence in public speaking through weekly presentations and assignments, lectures and discussions, guest speakers, simulated activities, and filmed feedback. Students will be given the opportunity to present both individually and as part of a team. We will explore the essentials of communication strategy and persuasion: audience analysis, message construction, communicator credibility, and delivery. Students at all levels of mastery of public speaking will benefit from this course. Enrollment is limited to 36. Students are required to attend the first class session in order to remain enrolled or to bid for the course.
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    MGT 553 Strategic Communication MGT 553 Class attendance is mandatory, including the first day. Those who miss the first day of class will be dropped from enrollment. There are four sections to choose from - two sections offered in fall-2 and two sections offered in spring-1. They are all the same half semester course, just offered at different times in the semester. The focus of this course is to increase one's competencies in oral communication and presentation. Developing and executing effective communication strategies is essential in a variety of business settings. Business leaders are often expected to present their message with confidence and clarity to employees, clients, partners, investors and the public. This highly interactive, practical course will help students develop confidence in public speaking through weekly presentations and assignments, lectures and discussions, guest speakers, simulated activities, and filmed feedback. Students will be given the opportunity to present both individually and as part of a team. We will explore the essentials of communication strategy and persuasion: audience analysis, message construction, communicator credibility, and delivery. Students at all levels of mastery of public speaking will benefit from this course. Enrollment is limited to 36. Students are required to attend the first class session in order to remain enrolled or to bid for the course.
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    MGT 582 The Future of Global Finance MGT 582 Finance can be likened to the circulatory system of the global economy, and we will focus on the past, present and future of that system. The course is designed to deal with questions such as these: What is the global financial system and how does it work? What are the pressures on that system including market, regulatory, political and social dynamics? What are the key challenges to that system? How can the system be strengthened? We will take a broad view of the GFS including its history, its geopolitical framework, its economic foundations and its legal underpinnings. We will look at a number of other key issues such as how the GFS deals with economic growth, economic and financial stability, distributional questions, employment issues, and long term investments in infrastructure. We will discuss how new technologies are affecting several of the biggest issues in global finance. We will examine the GFS as a large-scale complex network, thereby compelling us to see it in an interconnected and multidisciplinary way. The emphasis will be on the practice of global finance more than the theory. The course is open to graduate students throughout Yale and to seniors in Yale College. The only prerequisite is an undergraduate or graduate course on macroeconomics. It is mandatory that you attend the first class. If you do not attend the first class, you will not be eligible to enroll in the course.
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    MGT 611 Policy Modeling MGT 611 How can one evaluate the effectiveness of HIV prevention programs? How many drug treatment slots are required to provide treatment on demand? Does capital punishment deter homicide? And what do the above questions have in common? The answer to the last query is simple: these problems and more are considered in Policy Modeling. Building on earlier coursework in quantitative analysis and statistics, Policy Modeling provides an operational framework for exploring the costs and benefits of public policy decisions. The techniques employed include "back of the envelope" probabilistic models, Markov processes, queuing theory, and linear/integer programming. With an eye towards making better decisions, these techniques are applied to a number of important policy problems. In addition to lectures, assigned articles and text readings, and short problem sets, students will be responsible for completing a take-home midterm exam and a number of cases. In some instances, it will be possible to take a real problem from formulation to solution, and compare your own analysis to what actually happened. Prerequisites: A demonstrated proficiency in quantitative methods.
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    MGT 621 Managing Social Enterprises MGT 621 This course provides the opportunity to examine, through a set of case studies, key issues related to managing social enterprise organizations. Following initial content reviewing perspectives on the trend of social enterprise, topics covered include: choosing the right organizational legal form, managing competing or conflicting goals, tools for double and triple bottom line decision making, calculating a SROI (social return on investment), the challenge of integrating interdisciplinary human resources, raising capital at different stages of the organizational lifecycle, scaling a social innovation/ product, and exits.
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    MGT 627 Bus and Government After Communism MGT 627 The collapse of the USSR and its satellites recast business-government relations across the former communist world. New markets were manufactured, state assets were privatized, and novel business ventures were created. Even China, which retained its Communist political system, joined the capitalist economic order with a vengeance at home and abroad. The end of the Cold War also reshaped business-government relations in the West, as the threatening shadow of an alternative to capitalism “out there” vanished. The neo-liberal resurgence, which had seen extensive deregulation plus privatization of government monopolies in the 1980s, gathered momentum. Financial markets were freed up and privatization extended to core government functions like prisons and the military. Gated communities proliferated, spawning novel forms of private local government. Business took on new roles in developing counties as well, filling gaps in public service provision from weak states, and sometimes even reshaping political regimes themselves. This course explores the business-government nexus in this evolving context. The goal is to rethink business’s place in society, and its relations with government, in an era when alternatives to capitalism are moribund. The motivating thought is that unless business is part of the solution to major social and political challenges – ranging from sustaining democracy to feeding populations and managing environmental threats – it will likely be part of the problem. We examine cases in which new business roles have been more and less successful in order to chart the emerging landscape and develop accounts of best practices and pitfalls to avoid. In addition to the U.S., we will attend to developments in Russia, China (including China’s activity in Africa), India, Vietnam, South Africa, Latin America including Cuba, and the Israel-Palestine conflict. This course is cross-listed with the Political Science department. It will be held at the School of Management and will follow a hybrid of the Yale College and SOM Academic Calendars.
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    MGT 629 Ethical Choices in Public Leadership MGT 629 Every public leader must make choices that challenge his/her code of ethics. Sometimes, issues of life or death may be at stake. How and when should a leader decide to let some people die – or explicitly ask people to die – to give others a chance to live? At other times, while life or death may not be at stake, still a leader must decide difficult issues: when to partner with unsavory characters, when to admit failure, when to release information or make choices transparent. This interdisciplinary seminar on Ethical Choices in Public Leadership will draw upon perspectives from law, management, and public policy in exploring how leaders develop their principles, respond when their principles fail or conflict, and make real-world choices when, in fact, there are no good choices. The course will include simulations, group discussion, and guest lectures from leaders in government, business, and society. This cross-listed course will be held at the Jackson Institute and will follow the Graduate School academic calendar.
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    MGT 640 Evolution of Central Banking MGT 640 This course will be offered as part of the Jackson Institute and will follow the Yale College academic calendar. The conduct of monetary policy and of financial regulation is integral to the economy as a whole. This course will explore theoretical and policy perspectives as well as empirical debates in central banking since the turn of the twentieth century. At the course's conclusion, students should appreciate the practice of central banking as it has evolved and better understand the ongoing global economic and financial crisis. Pre-requisite: Intermediate Macroeconomics (MGT 425). Limited to 5 SOM students.
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Political Science, Department of
    PLSC 779 Agrarian Societies: Culture, Society, History, and Development PLSC 779 An interdisciplinary examination of agrarian societies, contemporary and historical, Western and non-Western. Major analytical perspectives from anthropology, economics, history, political science, and environmental studies are used to develop a meaning- centered and historically grounded account of the transformations of rural society. Team- taught.
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    PLSC 788 European Fascism PLSC 788 Fascism in Europe, in its variety of national manifestations, between 1918 and 1945. Topics include the range of theories about the social, intellectual, and political origins of Fascism; regime forms implemented by Fascists; crimes perpetrated by Fascist movements in Europe; and the long-term effects of Fascism on political debates in contemporary Europe.
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    PLSC 800 Introduction to American Politics PLSC 800 An introduction to the analysis of U.S. politics. Approaches given consideration include institutional design and innovation, social capital and civil society, the state, attitudes, ideology, econometrics of elections, rational actors, formal theories of institutions, and transatlantic comparisons. Assigned authors include R. Putnam, T. Skocpol, J. Gerring, J. Zaller, D.R. Kiewiet, L. Bartels, D. Mayhew, K. Poole & H. Rosenthal, G. Cox & M. McCubbins, K. Krehbiel, E. Schickler, and A. Alesina. Students are expected to read and discuss each week's assignment and, for each of five weeks, to write a three- to five-page analytic paper that deals with a subject addressed or suggested by the reading.
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    PLSC 922 Order Conflict & Violence PLSC 922 The OCV seminar series focuses on processes related to the emergence and breakdown of order. The key assumption is that understanding and studying these processes requires better theoretical and empirical foundations and calls for challenging existing disciplinary and methodological divides. The seminar series is, therefore, dedicated to the presentation of cutting-edge work from all social science disciplines and includes the presentation of ongoing research by Yale graduate students. Detailed information can be found at www.yale.edu/macmillan/ocvprogram.
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    PLSC 926 International Relations Workshop PLSC 926 The International Relations Workshop engages work in the fields of international security, international political economy, and international institutions. The forum attracts outside speakers, Yale faculty, and graduate students. It provides a venue to develop ideas, polish work-in-progress, or showcase completed projects. Typically, the speaker would prepare a 35- to 40-minute presentation, followed by a question-and-answer session. More information can be found at www.yale.edu/polisci/conferences/ir.html.
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    PLSC 766 Politics and Markets PLSC 766 Examination of the interplay between market and political processes in different substantive realms, time periods, and countries. Inquiry into the developmental relationship between capitalism and democracy, including the developmental and functional relationships between the two. Investigation of the politics of regulation in areas such as property rights; social security; international finance; and product, labor, and service markets. Topics include the economic motives of interest groups and coalitions in the political process.
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    PLSC 776 Islam and Democracy in the Modern Middle East PLSC 776 This seminar studies the development of regimes of government in Muslim countries since the nineteenth century. The focus is on early constitutional movements, the rise of political Islam, the management of religion in various twentieth-century states, the Iranian revolution, and the growth of Salafi ideas, culminating in the ISIS "caliphate."
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    PLSC 500 Statistics PLSC 500 An introduction to basic statistical theory and techniques for Political Science graduate students. The first part of the course covers probability theory, and the second is devoted to estimation and inference, including an introduction to the classic multiple linear regression framework. Although emphasis is on the development of the relevant theory and statistical concepts, a series of applications and examples is considered on a variety of political science problems.
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    PLSC 504 Advanced Quantitative Methods PLSC 504 The aim of this course is to provide students with the understanding and tools to critically consume and conduct statistical research. The theme is the challenge of drawing reliable causal inference. We will learn: how to use graphical methods to transparently analyze and present data; how to discipline our analyses against multiple-comparisons bias; how to use nonparametric methods to avoid implausible assumptions; how strong research design is essential to causal inference; how Bayesian inference provides the mathematical vocabulary for thinking about scientific inference; how causal graphs allow us to express and analyze causal assumptions, choose control variables, and think about selection bias; how placebo tests allow us to test assumptions; how to build and understand Likelihood and Bayesian models including Logistic and Probit models; how to think about and analyze time-series cross-sectional data. We will review instrumental variables methods and regression-discontinuity designs, though it is assumed that you have already covered these in PLSC 503.
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    PLSC 520 Game Theory and Political Science PLSC 520 Introduction to game theory—a method by which strategic interactions among individuals and groups in society are mathematically modeled—and its applications to political science. Concepts employed by game theorists, such as Nash equilibrium, subgame perfect equilibrium, and perfect Bayesian equilibrium. Problems of cooperation, time-consistency, signaling, and reputation formation. Political applications include candidate competition, policy making, political bargaining, and international conflict.
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    PLSC 553 Justice PLSC 553 An examination of contemporary theories, together with an effort to assess their practical implications. Authors this year include Peter Singer, Richard Posner, John Rawls, Robert Nozick, Michael Walzer, Marion Young, Avishai Margalit, and Cass Sunstein. Topics: animal rights, the status of children and the principles of educational policy, the relation of market justice to distributive justice, the status of affirmative action. Self-scheduled examination or paper option. Follows Law School academic calendar.
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    PLSC 565 Democracy and Distribution PLSC 565 The attention showered in 2015 on Thomas Piketty's book Capital in the Twenty-First Century brought issues of inequality in the distribution of income and wealth to the forefront of public and scholarly attention. An enormous body of research has been produced over the past two decades to understand the nature of the dramatic rise in inequality, especially in the United States, and its causes. A long list of proposals for legal change has emerged in response to the outpouring of data and analysis. This course explores the facts and the causes of and political barriers to potential responses to these recent developments, principally but not exclusively in the United States. Ultimately, the question requires an examination of the relations between democracy and the distribution of income and wealth. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which different groups, classes, and coalitions affect, and are affected by, democratic distributive politics. Attention is paid to theories of distribution, politics of distribution, distributive instruments, and the implementation of policies affecting distribution. Substantive topics covered include regulation, protectionism, taxes, social insurance, welfare, public opinion, education, and unions. Follows Law School academic calendar.
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    PLSC 580 Borders, Culture, and Citizenship PLSC 580 The contemporary refugee crisis in Europe and elsewhere; new patterns of migration, increasing demands for multicultural rights on the part of Muslim minorities in the West, and transnational effects of globalization faced by contemporary societies. This course examines these issues in a multidisciplinary perspective in the light of political theories of citizenship and migration, and laws concerning refugees and migrants in Europe and the United States.
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    PLSC 630 Philosophy of Science for the Study of Politics PLSC 630 An examination of the philosophy of science from the perspective of the study of politics. Particular attention to the ways in which assumptions about science influence models of political behavior, the methods adopted to study that behavior, and the relations between science and democracy. Readings include works by both classic and contemporary authors.
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    PLSC 656 Global Governance PLSC 656 Examination of global policy problems, the acceleration of interdependence, and the role, potential, and limits of the institutions of global governance to articulate collective interests and to work out cooperative problem solving arrangements. Consideration of gaps in global governance and controversies between globalization and state sovereignty, universality, and tradition.
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    PLSC 657 The Global Politics of Artificial Intelligence PLSC 657 Study of the processes in which machine intelligence transforms economic, societal, and global politics and of the political challenges in development of beneficial artificial intelligence. Topics include the provability of beneficial AI; the effects on, and of, inequality and unemployment; military conflict and strategy with autonomous weapons, cyber weapons, and AI-enabled intelligence; and determining which global institutions are best suited for providing global public goods, the legitimate aggregation of preferences, and the control of AI development.
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    PLSC 678 Japan and the World PLSC 678 The historical development of Japan's international relations since the late Tokugawa period; World War II and its legacy; domestic institutions and foreign policy; implications for the United States; and interactions between nationalism and regionalism.
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    PLSC 709 Comparative Constitutional Law PLSC 709 An effort to define the key concepts adequate for an evaluation of the worldwide development of modern constitutionalism since the Second World War. Enrollment limited. Follows Law School academic calendar.
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    PLSC 717 Business and Government After Communism PLSC 717 Reassessment of business's place in society—and its relations with government—in an era when alternatives to capitalism are moribund. Topics include the role of business in regime change, corruption and attempts to combat it, business and the provision of low-income housing and social services, and privatization of such core functions of government as prisons, the military, and local public services.
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    PLSC 732 State and Society in Contemporary Ukraine PLSC 732 Functioning of the state and society in post-Soviet Ukraine. The formation and subsequent transformation of the state, including the constitution, the branches of government, the party system, elections, foreign policy, education, and social welfare. Various facets of society such as religion, media, language use, gender relations, poverty, and racism considered. Particular attention paid to the Orange Revolution and Euromaidan.
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Public Health, School of
    CDE 543 Global Aspects of Food and Nutrition CDE 543 The course presents a core topic in global health and development that is at the intersection of science, society, and policy. The course familiarizes students with leading approaches to analyzing the causes of malnutrition in countries around the world and to designing and evaluating nutrition interventions. It covers micronutrient and macronutrient deficiencies; approaches to reducing malnutrition; the cultural, economic, environmental, agricultural, and policy context within which malnutrition exists; and the relationships between common infections and nutritional status.
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    CDE 547 Climate Change and Public Health CDE 547 This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to examining relationships between climate change and public health. After placing climate change in the context of the Anthropocene and planetary health and exploring the fundamentals of climate change science, the course covers impacts of climate change on public health, including heat waves; occupational heat stress; air pollution; wildfires; aeroallergens; vector-borne, foodborne, and waterborne diseases; water scarcity; food security; migration; violent conflict; natural disasters; and health benefits of climate change mitigation. The course integrates climate justice issues and adaptation strategies into the discussion of specific topics. The course is reading-intensive and makes ample use of case studies, with a focus on critical reading of the literature and identifying research gaps and needs.
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    CDE 585 Sexuality, Gender, Health, and Human Rights CDE 585 The course explores the application of human rights perspectives and practices to issues in regard to sexuality and health. It addresses the necessity—and complexity—of adding nuanced rights perspectives to programming and advocacy on sexual health. Through reading, interactive discussion, paper presentation, and occasional outside speakers, students learn the tools and implications of applying rights to a range of sexuality and health-related topics. The overall goal is twofold: to engage students in the world of global sexual health and rights policy making as a field of social justice and public health action; and to introduce them to conceptual tools that can inform advocacy and policy formation and evaluation.
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    EMD 537 Water, Sanitation, and Global Health EMD 537 Water is essential for life, and yet unsafe water poses threats to human health globally, from the poorest to the wealthiest countries. More than two billion people around the world lack access to clean, safe drinking water, hygiene, and sanitation (WASH). This course focuses on the role of water in human health from a public health perspective. The course provides a broad overview of the important relationships between water quality, human health, and the global burden of waterborne diseases. It discusses the basics of water compartments and the health effects from exposures to pathogenic microbes and toxic chemicals in drinking water. It also covers different sanitation solutions to improve water quality and disease prevention and discusses future challenges and the need for intervention strategies in the new millennium.
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    EMD 543 Global Aspects of Food and Nutrition EMD 543 The course presents a core topic in global health and development that is at the intersection of science, society, and policy. The course familiarizes students with leading approaches to analyzing the causes of malnutrition in countries around the world and to designing and evaluating nutrition interventions. It covers micronutrient and macronutrient deficiencies; approaches to reducing malnutrition; the cultural, economic, environmental, agricultural, and policy context within which malnutrition exists; and the relationships between common infections and nutritional status.
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    EPH 100 Professional Skills Seminar EPH 100 The Professional Skills Seminar is intended to prepare M.P.H. students for leadership positions as public health professionals. Material covered includes public speaking, presentation skills, professional writing, negotiation and conflict resolution, and networking and social media. Attendance at all sessions is required (elective for Advanced Professional M.P.H. students), and some homework is a part of the program. Although no credit or grade is awarded, satisfactory performance will be noted on the student's transcript.
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    EPH 515 Ethics and Public Health: An Introduction EPH 515 This four-session seminar introduces students to the ethical implications of public health programs, policies, and research initiatives; their historical roots; and the regulations and guidelines governing human subjects research in the United States and internationally. Case studies are used to demonstrate selected ethical challenges in public health policy, practice, and research. In addition, students learn the functions and procedures of Yale's Human Research Protection Program and complete its Web-based training on human subjects research. M.P.H. students are required to take the course during the first year of the program.
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    EPH 581 Seminar for Modeling in PH EPH 581  
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    EPH 591 Global Health Foundations EPH 591 Global Health Foundations is a weekly seminar intended to expose students in the health professions to key issues in global health research and practice. The course features faculty from across the health professional schools and other global health experts from around the world. Its collaborative nature provides a rich environment for interdisciplinary dialogue. The goal of the course is for students to attain a good understanding of key issues upon which they may base future research, service, and clinical pursuits in the field of global health. Although no course credit is awarded, satisfactory performance is noted on the student's transcript.
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    HPM 586 Microeconomics for Health Policy and Health Management HPM 586 This course introduces students to microeconomics, with an emphasis on topics of particular relevance to the health care sector. Attention is paid to issues of equity and distribution, uncertainty and attitudes toward risk, and alternatives to price competition. This course is designed for students with minimal previous exposure to economics.
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    HPM 588 Public Health Law HPM 588 This course focuses on the law of population health, examining the legal powers and duties of federal, state, and local governments to promote and protect the health of their communities, as well as the constraints placed on those powers to protect individual rights. A course designed specifically for students with no legal training, it introduces students to the multiple ways the law can be used as a tool to advance public health, including through direct and indirect regulation to alter the information and built environments; through governments' power to tax and spend to fund public health programs and services, and in ways that can influence individual and corporate behavior; and through the courts. Students gain basic proficiency in finding, reading, and interpreting primary legal sources, in applying the law to public health problems, and in identifying ways to most effectively influence legislative, administrative, and judicial lawmaking processes to promote and protect (and also thwart efforts to impede) public health.
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Sociology, Department of
    SOCY 580 Introduction to Methods in Quantitative Sociology SOCY 580 Introduction to methods in quantitative sociological research. Covers data description; graphical approaches; elementary probability theory; bivariate and multivariate linear regression; regression diagnostics. Includes hands-on data analysis using Stata.
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Statistics, Department of
    STAT 502 Introduction to Statistics: Political Science STAT 502 Statistical analysis of politics, elections, and political psychology. Problems presented with reference to a wide array of examples: public opinion, campaign finance, racially motivated crime, and public policy.
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    STAT 503 Introduction to Statistics: Social Sciences STAT 503 Descriptive and inferential statistics applied to analysis of data from the social sciences. Introduction of concepts and skills for understanding and conducting quantitative research.
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    STAT 530 Introductory Data Analysis STAT 530 Survey of statistical methods: plots, transformations, regression, analysis of variance, clustering, principal components, contingency tables, and time series analysis. The R computing language and Web data sources are used.
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    STAT 538 Probability and Statistics STAT 538 Fundamental principles and techniques of probabilistic thinking, statistical modeling, and data analysis. Essentials of probability: conditional probability, random variables, distributions, law of large numbers, central limit theorem, Markov chains. Statistical inference with emphasis on the Bayesian approach: parameter estimation, likelihood, prior and posterior distributions, Bayesian inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo. Introduction to regression and linear models. Computers are used throughout for calculations, simulations, and analysis of data.
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    STAT 541 Probability Theory STAT 541 A first course in probability theory: probability spaces, random variables, expectations and probabilities, conditional probability, independence, some discrete and continuous distributions, central limit theorem, Markov chains, probabilistic modeling.
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    STAT 625 Case Studies STAT 625 Statistical analysis of a variety of statistical problems using real data. Emphasis on methods of choosing data, acquiring data, assessing data quality, and the issues posed by extremely large data sets. Extensive computations using R.
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    STAT 627 Statistical Consulting STAT 627 Statistical consulting and collaborative research projects often require statisticians to explore new topics outside their area of expertise. This course exposes students to real problems, requiring them to draw on their expertise in probability, statistics, and data analysis. Students complete the course with individual projects supervised jointly by faculty outside the department and by one of the instructors. Students enroll for both terms and receive one credit at the end of the year.
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Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
    WGSS 630 Postcolonial and Transnational Feminist Theories WGSS 630 An advanced survey course in feminist theory with a focus on postcolonial and transnational approaches. It is often assumed that if postcolonial theory focuses on history and historicity, then transnational theories emphasize space and place, assuming the importance of networks and flows. How might we think otherwise of these theoretical contributions? What are their connections across fields and areas? What, finally, are the ways that feminist theory has come to incorporate these approaches in the way that it conceptualizes the "international," "global," and "regional" in relation to histories of culture, politics, difference, and intersectionality. We examine these and other questions of disciplinarity, method, and history.
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